In Africa, his conversations had been strictly limited by the language barrier, but in India he was able to converse extensively. Hindu philosophy became an important element in his understanding of the role of symbolism and the life of the unconscious, though he avoided a meeting with Ramana Maharshi.
He also admitted that his field of psychology was not competent to understand the eastern insight of the Atman "the self".
Jung became seriously ill on this trip and endured two weeks of delirium in a Calcutta hospital. After , his travels were confined to Europe.
Jung continued to publish books until the end of his life, including Flying Saucers: A Modern Myth of Things Seen in the Skies , which analyzed the archetypal meaning and possible psychological significance of the reported observations of UFOs.
The major concepts of analytical psychology as developed by Jung include: Archetype — a concept "borrowed" from anthropology to denote supposedly universal and recurring mental images or themes.
Archetypal images — universal symbols that can mediate opposites in the psyche, often found in religious art, mythology and fairy tales across cultures.
Complex — the repressed organisation of images and experiences that governs perception and behaviour. Extraversion and introversion — personality traits of degrees of openness or reserve contributing to psychological type.
Shadow — the repressed, therefore unknown, aspects of the personality including those often considered to be negative. Collective unconscious — aspects of unconsciousness experienced by all people in different cultures.
Self — the central overarching concept governing the individuation process, as symbolised by mandalas, the union of male and female, totality, unity.
Individuation — the process of fulfilment of each individual "which negates neither the conscious or unconscious position but does justice to them both".
Synchronicity — an acausal principle as a basis for the apparently random simultaneous occurrence of phenomena.
Jung was one of the first people to define introversion and extraversion in a psychological context. These two psychological types Jung compares to ancient archetypes, Apollo and Dionysus.
The introvert is likened with Apollo, who shines light on understanding. The introvert is focused on the internal world of reflection, dreaming and vision.
Thoughtful and insightful, the introvert can sometimes be uninterested in joining the activities of others. The extravert is associated with Dionysus, interested in joining the activities of the world.
The extravert is focused on the outside world of objects, sensory perception and action. Energetic and lively, the extravert may lose their sense of self in the intoxication of Dionysian pursuits.
In his psychological theory — which is not necessarily linked to a particular theory of social structure — the persona appears as a consciously created personality or identity, fashioned out of part of the collective psyche through socialization , acculturation and experience.
Jung regarded the "persona-mask" as a complicated system which mediates between individual consciousness and the social community: Based on his study of Christianity , Hinduism , Buddhism , Gnosticism , Taoism , and other traditions, Jung believed that this journey of transformation, which he called individuation , is at the mystical heart of all religions.
It is a journey to meet the self and at the same time to meet the Divine. Jung recommended spirituality as a cure for alcoholism , and he is considered to have had an indirect role in establishing Alcoholics Anonymous.
After working with the patient for some time and achieving no significant progress, Jung told the man that his alcoholic condition was near to hopeless, save only the possibility of a spiritual experience.
Jung noted that, occasionally, such experiences had been known to reform alcoholics when all other options had failed. He also told other alcoholics what Jung had told him about the importance of a spiritual experience.
The influence of Jung thus indirectly found its way into the formation of Alcoholics Anonymous, the original twelve-step program.
The above claims are documented in the letters of Jung and Bill Wilson, excerpts of which can be found in Pass It On , published by Alcoholics Anonymous.
The remarks were distributed privately in transcript form, from shorthand taken by an attender Jung reportedly approved the transcript , and later recorded in Volume 18 of his Collected Works , The Symbolic Life,.
Jung goes on to state that he has seen similar cures among Roman Catholics. Jung had an apparent interest in the paranormal and occult. For decades he attended seances and claimed to have witnessed "parapsychic phenomena".
Initially he attributed these to psychological causes, even delivering lecture in England for the Society for Psychical Research on "The Psychological Foundations for the belief in spirits".
Jung influenced one philosophical interpretation not the science of quantum physics with the concept of synchronicity regarding some events as non-causal.
That idea influenced the physicist Wolfgang Pauli with whom, via a letter correspondence, he developed the notion of unus mundus in connection with the notion of nonlocality and some other physicists.
The work and writings of Jung from the s onwards focused on alchemy. In Jung published Psychology and Alchemy , in which he analyzed the alchemical symbols and came to the conclusion that there is a direct relationship between them and the psychoanalytical process.
Jung proposed that art can be used to alleviate or contain feelings of trauma, fear, or anxiety and also to repair, restore and heal.
At times of emotional distress, he often drew, painted, or made objects and constructions which he recognized as more than recreational.
He saw that the state was treated as "a quasi-animate personality from whom everything is expected" but that this personality was "only camouflage for those individuals who know how to manipulate it",  and referred to the state as a form of slavery.
Jung had many friends and respected colleagues who were Jewish and he maintained relations with them through the s when anti-semitism in Germany and other European nations was on the rise.
However, until , he also maintained professional relations with psychotherapists in Germany who had declared their support for the Nazi regime and there were allegations that he himself was a Nazi sympathizer.
The society was reorganized into two distinct bodies:. Jung went on to say "the main point is to get a young and insecure science into a place of safety during an earthquake".
For the next few years, the Zentralblatt under Jung and Meier maintained a position distinct from that of the Nazis, in that it continued to acknowledge contributions of Jewish doctors to psychotherapy.
In the face of energetic German attempts to Nazify the international body, Jung resigned from its presidency in ,  the year the Second World War started.
Jung clearly identifies himself with the spirit of German Volkstumsbewegung throughout this period and well into the s and s, until the horrors of Nazism finally compelled him to reframe these neopagan metaphors in a negative light in his essay on Wotan.
You know you could never talk to this man; because there is nobody there It is not an individual; it is an entire nation.
In an interview with Carol Baumann in , Jung denied rumors regarding any sympathy for the Nazi movement, saying:. It must be clear to anyone who has read any of my books that I have never been a Nazi sympathizer and I never have been anti-Semitic, and no amount of misquotation, mistranslation, or rearrangement of what I have written can alter the record of my true point of view.
Nearly every one of these passages has been tampered with, either by malice or by ignorance. Furthermore, my friendly relations with a large group of Jewish colleagues and patients over a period of many years in itself disproves the charge of anti-Semitism.
Others have argued contrary to this, with reference to his writings, correspondence and public utterances of the s. For Jung, the "epithet "barbarism" was anything but a compliment".
During the s, Jung had worked to protect Jewish psychologists from antisemitic legislation enacted by the Nazis.
Jung was in contact with Allen Dulles of the Office of Strategic Services predecessor of the Central Intelligence Agency and provided valuable intelligence on the psychological condition of Hitler.
Dulles referred to Jung as "Agent " and offered the following description of his service: Jung saw the human psyche as "by nature religious" and made this religiousness the focus of his explorations.
Jung is one of the best known contemporary contributors to dream analysis and symbolization. His influence on popular psychology, the "psychologization of religion", spirituality and the New Age movement has been immense.
A Review of General Psychology survey, published in , ranked Jung as the 23rd most cited psychologist of the 20th century. The Collected Works of C.
Routledge Kegan Paul From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Jung disambiguation. Swiss psychiatrist and psychotherapist.
Kesswil , Thurgau , Switzerland. Boston Graduate School of Psychoanalysis. Psychiatry portal Psychology portal. Jung emphasized the significance of the symbolic structure of alchemical texts, a structure that is understood as a way independent of laboratory research, as a structure per se.
Alkimia Operativa and Alkimia Speculativa. Some Modern Controversies on the Historiography of Alchemy. Jung, Aufsatze zur Zeitgeschichte , Speeches made in , are excerpted.
He was protesting the "slavery by the government" and the "chaos and insanity" of the mob, because of the very fact that they were the part of the mob and were under its strong influence.
He wrote that because of the speeches he delivered he was blacklisted by the Nazis. They eliminated his writings.
The Cambridge Companion To Jung. Wounded Healer of the Soul: Retrieved 19 December He was an Arabist; but the family money ran out for his studies.
Relief came from a family legacy, however, a condition of the will was that it should only be offered to a family member who intended to study theology and become a pastor.
Paul Jung therefore had his career determined by a will, not his will. The Art Therapy Sourcebook. Retrieved 19 July A Life of Jung 1st American ed.
A Journey of Transformation. Retrieved 7 September Sabina Spielrien between Jung and Freud. Tender love and transference. The snares of seduction in life and in therapy, or what do young [Jewish] girls Spielrein seek in their Aryan heroes Jung , and vice versa?
International Forum of Psychoanalysis, A life for Our Time London, p. The correspondence between Sigmund Freud and C.
Translated by Ralph Manheim and R. Jung — A Biography. Freud, Jung and Hall the King-Maker. The History and Evolution of Dynamic Psychiatry.
The Science of Behavior. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Jung, Collected Works vol. A troubled relationship with Freud — and the Nazis". Journal of Analytical Psychology: Lionel Trilling and Steven Marcus.
Retrieved 7 June Collected Papers on Analytical Psychology. Bailliere, Tindall and Cox. The New York Times. Retrieved 20 September Rubin Museum of Art.
Archived from the original on 11 July Journal of Analytical Psychology. Psychology and Western Religion. A third and equally weighty essay is Psychology and Religion , originally given as the Terry Lectures at Yale University in Editorial Note by William McGuire.
Race and White Identity in Southern Fiction: From Faulkner to Morrison. Clemens, Carl Gustav Jung, It was first published as Antwort auf Hiob , Zurich, and translated into English in , in London.
Jung is Dead at 85; Pioneer in Analytic Psychology". Princeton University Press, Retrieved 9 June Eerdmans Publishing Company, ; Robert H.
Viking Press, , p. Princeton University Press, 2nd ed. Angelika Ebbinghaus et al. Akademische Verlagsanstalt, , pp.
Continuum International Publishing Group. Auf Unendliches bezogen — Spirituelle Entdeckungen bei C. A Journey of Transformation: Eight Points of View", , p.
Classic and Contemporary Views. Introduction to Alcoholism Counseling. Message Reached the World. Alcoholics Anonymous World Services, Inc. Miscellaneous Writings Princeton, NJ: Jung on Synchronicity and the Paranormal.
Retrieved 8 August The Skeptic Encyclopedia of Pseudoscience. Jung 15 April An Acausal Connecting Principle. Ambiguity, Obscurity, and Synchronicity".
The Moving Imagination Paperback - Routledge". Retrieved 23 November A Collection of Essays - Volume Two.
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