England setzte erstmals einen "Legionär" ein, danach aber auch nur wenige. Steckbriefe und Daten aller Spieler, dazu statistische Werte und Livedaten - alle Informationen zu Englands Kader bei der Fußball- WM in Russland. 7. Juli Die englische Mannschaft steht im Halbfinale der WM - weil sie bisher noch keine wirklich harten Gegner hatte. Aber das ist nur die halbe.
wm england - consider, thatUnd da wird Deutschland "Pessimismus" vorgehalten? Das kam ihnen gegen die Schweden zugute. Für Torhüter Gordon Banks war es das erste Gegentor nach Minuten, was bis heute noch englischer Torhüterrekord ist. Top Gutscheine Alle Shops. Da es in den Jahren zuvor immer wieder zu Ausschreitungen englischer Hooligans bei Europapokalspielen gekommen war, wurde England gezielt in eine Gruppe gelost, die auf Sardinien und Sizilien spielte. Oder wie es ein englischer Kommentator wenig später ausdrückte: Respekt dass sie überhaut so weit gekommen sind! Natürlich wird England auch im Sommer in Russland auf dem Rasen stehen. Diskutieren Sie über diesen Artikel.
wm england - think, thatDer Autor tut so, als sei Kolumbien eine Tresenmannschaft gewesen. Top Gutscheine Alle Shops. Tatsächlich war der Klassenunterschied zwischen beiden Mannschaften immer zu sehen. Platz — im Vergleich zu England, der in dieser Hinsicht weltweit neuntbesten Auswahl. Dabei profitierten die Engländer von einer 1: Taylor wurde entlassen und durch Terry Venables ersetzt, der die englische Nationalmannschaft zu einer guten Leistung bei der EM im eigenen Land führte. Nur Torhüter Peter Shilton hatte da mit mehr Länderspiele aufzuweisen. Damit blieb für England wie nur das Spiel um Platz 3, in dem sie erneut auf Belgien trafen. Acht Jahre später scheinen sich die Verhältnisse umgedreht zu haben.
England wm - canBereits in der vierten Minute gerieten sie in Rückstand und konnten diesen nicht wettmachen. Nach 60 Minuten kamen die Kroaten aber besser ins Spiel und erzielten in der Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte. Nach der Eröffnung des neuen Wembley-Stadions wurden ebenfalls alle Londoner Spiele dort ausgetragen. Sie haben einen Fluch gebrochen. Im Jahr darauf verzeichnete die englische Auswahl mit einem 4: Acht Jahre später scheinen sich die Verhältnisse umgedreht zu haben. Ihr Kommentar zum Thema. Oder wie es ein englischer Kommentator wenig später ausdrückte: Italien , Uruguay , Costa Rica. Bei der Endrunde , für die sich bis heute zum einzigen Mal auch die anderen britischen Mannschaften qualifiziert hatten, und jede in eine andere Gruppe gelost wurde, traf England auf die Sowjetunion 2: Coach der Engländer ist Gareth Southgate. Dabei kassierten die Engländer zusammen mit Spanien die wenigsten Gegentore 3 , schossen aber nur halb so viele Tore wie die Iberer. Dort traf der selbst erklärte Weltmeister auf Titelverteidiger Uruguay und verlor mit 2: Zur gleichen Zeit entwickelte sich auch im Umfeld der Nationalmannschaft unter den Anhängern ein stetig wachsendes Hooligan -Problem, das vor allem bei englischen Auswärtsländerspielen auftrat. Anders sieht es hingegen gegen die starken Belgier aus. Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte.
Rice could captain Republic - McCarthy. FA appoints Reed as technical director. Southgate wins best coach at BBC awards. Ashworth proud of English culture change.
Not reaching the World Cup final was painful - Southgate. Croatia win perfect end to - Kane. Rooney on England, and life in the US.
Disappointing that Rooney has to defend inclusion - Southgate. Should England go for points or experiment? Is Southgate beginning a bold new era? More from BBC Sport.
England frustrated as patient West Indies build significant lead Cricket. Wales fight back from deficit to stun France in Paris Rugby Union.
Boulter out in first round in St Petersburg Tennis. Upon becoming king, Henry inherited a government severely weakened and degraded by the Wars of the Roses.
Through a tight fiscal policy and sometimes ruthless tax collection and confiscations, Henry refilled the treasury by the time of his death.
He also effectively rebuilt the machinery of government. When the king himself died in , the position of the Tudors was secure at last, and his son succeeded him unopposed.
Henry VIII began his reign with much optimism. The handsome, athletic young king stood in sharp contrast to his wary, miserly father.
He married the widowed Catherine of Aragon , and they had several children, but none survived infancy except a daughter, Mary. In , the young king started a war in France.
The war accomplished little. The English army suffered badly from disease, and Henry was not even present at the one notable victory, the Battle of the Spurs.
While Henry was dallying in France, Catherine, who was serving as regent in his absence, and his advisers were left to deal with this threat.
At the Battle of Flodden on 9 September , the Scots were completely defeated. James and most of the Scottish nobles were killed.
When Henry returned from France, he was given credit for the victory. Eventually, Catherine was no longer able to have any more children.
He eventually decided that it was necessary to divorce Catherine and find a new queen. To persuade the Church to allow this, Henry cited the passage in the Book of Leviticus: However, Catherine insisted that she and Arthur never consummated their brief marriage and that the prohibition did not apply here.
Because he could not divorce in these circumstances, Henry seceded from the Church, in what became known as the English Reformation. The newly established Church of England amounted to little more than the existing Catholic Church, but led by the king rather than the Pope.
In , Catherine was banished from court and spent the rest of her life until her death in alone in an isolated manor home, barred from contact with Mary.
Secret correspondence continued thanks to her ladies-in-waiting. Their marriage was declared invalid, making Mary an illegitimate child. Henry married Anne Boleyn secretly in January , just as his divorce from Catherine was finalised.
They had a second, public wedding. Anne soon became pregnant and may have already been when they wed. But on 7 September , she gave birth to a daughter, Elizabeth.
The king was devastated at his failure to obtain a son after all the effort it had taken to remarry. Gradually, he came to develop a disliking of his new queen for her strange behaviour.
In , when Anne was pregnant again, Henry was badly injured in a jousting accident. Shaken by this, the queen gave birth prematurely to a stillborn boy.
By now, the king was convinced that his marriage was hexed, and having already found a new queen, Jane Seymour, he put Anne in the Tower of London on charges of witchcraft.
Afterwards, she was beheaded along with five men her brother included accused of adultery with her. The marriage was then declared invalid, so that Elizabeth, just like her half sister, became a bastard.
Henry immediately married Jane Seymour , who became pregnant almost as quickly. On 12 October , she gave birth to a healthy boy, Edward, which was greeted with huge celebrations.
However, the queen died of puerperal sepsis ten days later. Henry genuinely mourned her death, and at his own passing nine years later, he was buried next to her.
The king married a fourth time in , to the German Anne of Cleves for a political alliance with her Protestant brother, the Duke of Cleves.
He also hoped to obtain another son in case something should happen to Edward. Anne proved a dull, unattractive woman and Henry did not consummate the marriage.
He quickly divorced her, and she remained in England as a kind of adopted sister to him. He married again, to a year-old named Catherine Howard.
But when it became known that she was neither a virgin at the wedding, nor a faithful wife afterwards, she ended up on the scaffold and the marriage declared invalid.
His sixth and last marriage was to Catherine Parr , who was more his nursemaid than anything else, as his health was failing since his jousting accident in In , the king started a new campaign in France, but unlike in , he only managed with great difficulty.
He only conquered the city of Boulogne, which France retook in Scotland also declared war and at Solway Moss was again totally defeated.
The number of executions during his year reign numbered tens of thousands. He died in January at age 55 and was succeeded by his son, Edward VI.
Although he showed piety and intelligence, Edward VI was only nine years old when he became king in He took the title of Protector.
While some see him as a high-minded idealist, his stay in power culminated in a crisis in when many counties of the realm were up in protest.
Somerset, disliked by the Regency Council for being autocratic, was removed from power by John Dudley , who is known as Lord President Northumberland.
Northumberland proceeded to adopt the power for himself, but he was more conciliatory and the Council accepted him. Edward showed great promise but fell violently ill of tuberculosis in and died that August, two months before his 16th birthday.
Northumberland made plans to place Lady Jane Grey on the throne and marry her to his son, so that he could remain the power behind the throne.
His plot failed in a matter of days, Jane Grey was beheaded, and Mary I — took the throne amidst popular demonstration in her favour in London, which contemporaries described as the largest show of affection for a Tudor monarch.
Mary had never been expected to hold the throne, at least not since Edward was born. She was a devoted Catholic who believed that she could reverse the Reformation.
The union was difficult because Mary was already in her late 30s and Philip was a Catholic and a foreigner, and so not very welcome in England. This wedding also provoked hostility from France, already at war with Spain and now fearing being encircled by the Habsburgs.
Calais, the last English outpost on the Continent, was then taken by France. King Philip — had very little power, although he did protect Elizabeth.
He was not popular in England, and spent little time there. In reality, she may have had uterine cancer. Her death in November was greeted with huge celebrations in the streets of London.
After Mary I died in , Elizabeth I came to the throne. She managed to offend neither to a large extent, although she clamped down on Catholics towards the end of her reign as war with Catholic Spain loomed.
Despite the need for an heir, Elizabeth declined to marry, despite offers from a number of suitors across Europe, including the Swedish king Erik XIV.
This created endless worries over her succession, especially in the s when she nearly died of smallpox. It has been often rumoured that she had a number of lovers including Francis Drake , but there is no hard evidence.
Elizabeth maintained relative government stability. Apart from the Revolt of the Northern Earls in , she was effective in reducing the power of the old nobility and expanding the power of her government.
During the reign of Elizabeth and shortly afterwards, the population grew significantly: The queen ran afoul of her cousin Mary, Queen of Scots , who was a devoted Catholic and so was forced to abdicate her throne Scotland had recently become Protestant.
She fled to England, where Elizabeth immediately had her arrested. Mary spent the next 19 years in confinement, but proved too dangerous to keep alive, as the Catholic powers in Europe considered her the legitimate ruler of England.
She was eventually tried for treason, sentenced to death, and beheaded in February Historians often depict it as the golden age in English history.
The symbol of Britannia was first used in and often thereafter to mark the Elizabethan age as a renaissance that inspired national pride through classical ideals, international expansion, and naval triumph over the hated Spanish foe.
In terms of the entire century, the historian John Guy argues that "England was economically healthier, more expansive, and more optimistic under the Tudors " than at any time in a thousand years.
This "golden age"  represented the apogee of the English Renaissance and saw the flowering of poetry, music and literature.
It was an age of exploration and expansion abroad, while back at home, the Protestant Reformation became more acceptable to the people, most certainly after the Spanish Armada was repulsed.
It was also the end of the period when England was a separate realm before its royal union with Scotland. The Elizabethan Age is viewed so highly largely because of the periods before and after.
It was a brief period of largely internal peace after the battles between Catholics and Protestants during the English Reformation and before battles between parliament and the monarchy of the 17th century.
England was also well-off compared to the other nations of Europe. Italian Renaissance had ended due to foreign domination of the peninsula.
France was embroiled in religious battles until the Edict of Nantes in Also, the English had been expelled from their last outposts on the continent.
Economically, the country began to benefit greatly from the new era of trans-Atlantic trade. Elizabeth signed the Treaty of Nonsuch with the Dutch and permitted Francis Drake to maraud in response to a Spanish embargo.
The Armada was not just a naval campaign. The build-up of land forces to resist a Spanish invasion has been described as an administrative feat of massive scope.
A survey taken in November and December showed , men in the militia, of whom 44, were members of the trained bands, being drilled and led by experienced captains and sergeants.
By May the London bands were drilling weekly. Once the beacons were lit, 72, men could be mobilised on the south coast, with another 46, protecting London.
For the many Englishmen caught up in the Armada the experience must have been very profound and frightening. Some shared the intimacy of beacon watching, hoping for the best, but ready to light their warning fires in case of the worst.
In foreign policy, Elizabeth played against each other the major powers France and Spain, as well as the papacy and Scotland.
These were all Catholic and each wanted to end Protestantism in England. Elizabeth was cautious in foreign affairs and only half-heartedly supported a number of ineffective, poorly resourced military campaigns in the Netherlands, France and Ireland.
The major war came with Spain, — In all, the Tudor period is seen as a decisive one which set up many important questions which would have to be answered in the next century and during the English Civil War.
These were questions of the relative power of the monarch and Parliament and to what extent one should control the other. Some historians think that Thomas Cromwell affected a "Tudor Revolution" in government, and it is certain that Parliament became more important during his chancellorship.
He was the first monarch to rule the entire island of Britain, but the countries remained separate politically.
Upon taking power, James made peace with Spain, and for the first half of the 17th century, England remained largely inactive in European politics.
Several assassination attempts were made on James, notably the Main Plot and Bye Plots of , and most famously, on 5 November , the Gunpowder Plot , by a group of Catholic conspirators, led by Robert Catesby , which caused more antipathy in England towards Catholicism.
In England built an establishment at Jamestown. This was the beginning of colonialism by England in North America.
Many English settled then in North America for religious or economic reasons. Charles surrendered to the Scottish army at Newark. He was eventually handed over to the English Parliament in early The capture and trial of Charles led to his beheading in January at Whitehall Gate in London, making England a republic.
This shocked the rest of Europe. The king argued to the end that only God could judge him. The trial and execution were a precursor of sorts to the beheading of Louis XVI years later.
After he died in , his son Richard Cromwell succeeded him in the office but he was forced to abdicate within a year.
For a while it seemed as if a new civil war would begin as the New Model Army split into factions. Troops stationed in Scotland under the command of George Monck eventually marched on London to restore order.
However, the power of the crown was less than before the Civil War. By the 18th century England rivaled the Netherlands as one of the freest countries in Europe.
In , London was swept by the plague , and in by the Great Fire for 5 days which destroyed about 15, buildings. In , the Exclusion crisis consisted of attempts to prevent accession of James, heir to Charles II, because he was Catholic.
In November , William invaded England and succeeded in being crowned. James tried to retake the throne in the Williamite War , but was defeated at the Battle of the Boyne in In December , one of the most important constitutional documents in English history, the Bill of Rights , was passed.
For example, the Sovereign could not suspend laws passed by Parliament, levy taxes without parliamentary consent, infringe the right to petition, raise a standing army during peacetime without parliamentary consent, deny the right to bear arms to Protestant subjects, unduly interfere with parliamentary elections, punish members of either House of Parliament for anything said during debates, require excessive bail or inflict cruel and unusual punishments.
In parts of Scotland and Ireland, Catholics loyal to James remained determined to see him restored to the throne, and staged a series of bloody uprisings.
As a result, any failure to pledge loyalty to the victorious King William was severely dealt with. The most infamous example of this policy was the Massacre of Glencoe in The Acts of Union between the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland were a pair of Parliamentary Acts passed by both parliaments in , which dissolved them in order to form a Kingdom of Great Britain governed by a unified Parliament of Great Britain according to the Treaty of Union.
Although described as a Union of Crowns, until there were in fact two separate Crowns resting on the same head.
There had been three attempts in , , and to unite the two countries by Acts of Parliament, but it was not until the early 18th century that the idea had the will of both political establishments behind them, albeit for rather different reasons.
The Acts took effect on 1 May On the Union, historian Simon Schama said "What began as a hostile merger, would end in a full partnership in the most powerful going concern in the world In ended the reign of Queen Anne , the last monarch of the House of Stuart.
Several Planned French Invasions were attempted, also with the intention of placing the Stuarts on the throne. The Act of Union of formally assimilated Ireland within the British political process and from 1 January created a new state called the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland , which united the Kingdom of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland to form a single political entity.
The English capital of London was adopted as the capital of the Union. Following the formation of the United Kingdom, the history of England is no longer the history of a sovereign nation, but rather the history of one of the countries of the United Kingdom.
In the late 18th century and early 19th centuries, technological advances and mechanization resulted in the Industrial Revolution which transformed a largely agrarian society and caused considerable social upheaval.
Economies of scale and increased output per worker allowed steam-based factories to undercut production of traditional cottage industries.
Much of the agricultural workforce was uprooted from the countryside and moved into large urban centres of production. The consequent overcrowding into areas with little supporting infrastructure saw dramatic increases in mortality, crime, and social deprivation.
The process of industrialization threatened many livelihoods, which prompted some to sabotage factories. These saboteurs were known as " Luddites ".
The Local Government Act of was the first systematic attempt to impose a standardised system of local government in England. The system was based on the existing counties today known as the historic counties , since the major boundary changes of Later, the Local Government Act created a second tier of local government.
All administrative counties and county boroughs were divided into either rural or urban districts, allowing more localised administration.
During the s, the need for local administration greatly increased, prompting piecemeal adjustments. The sanitary districts and parish councils had legal status, but were not part of the mechanism of government.
They were run by volunteers; often no-one could be held responsible for the failure to undertake the required duties.
Furthermore, the increased "county business" could not be handled by the Quarter Sessions , nor was this appropriate.
Finally, there was a desire to see local administration performed by elected officials, as in the reformed municipal boroughs. By , these shortcomings were clear, and the Local Government Act was the first systematic attempt to create a standardised system of local government in England.
The system was based on the existing counties now known as the historic counties , since the major boundary changes of The counties themselves had had some boundary changes in the preceding 50 years, mainly to remove enclaves and exclaves.
These statutory counties were to be used for non-administrative functions: With the advent of elected councils, the offices of lord lieutenant and sheriff became largely ceremonial.
However, it was felt that large cities and primarily rural areas in the same county could not be well administered by the same body.
These were part of the statutory counties, but not part of the administrative counties. In , the Local Government Act created a second tier of local government.
Henceforth, all administrative counties and county boroughs would be divided into either rural or urban districts, allowing more localised administration.
The municipal boroughs reformed after were brought into this system as special cases of urban districts. The urban and rural districts were based on, and incorporated the sanitary districts which created in with adjustments, so that districts did not overlap two counties.
The Act also provided for the establishment of civil parishes. However, the civil parishes were not a complete third-tier of local government.
Where urban parish councils had previously existed, they were absorbed into the new urban districts. A prolonged agricultural depression in Britain at the end of the 19th century, together with the introduction in the 20th century of increasingly heavy levels of taxation on inherited wealth, put an end to agricultural land as the primary source of wealth for the upper classes.
Many estates were sold or broken up, and this trend was accelerated by the introduction of protection for agricultural tenancies, encouraging outright sales, from the midth century.
There is a movement in England to create a devolved English Parliament. This issue is referred to as the West Lothian question.
In it recommended a system of single-tier unitary authorities for the whole of England, apart from three metropolitan areas of Merseyside , Selnec Greater Manchester and West Midlands Birmingham and the Black Country , which were to have both a metropolitan council and district councils.
This report was accepted by the Labour Party government of the time despite considerable opposition, but the Conservative Party won the June general election , and on a manifesto that committed them to a two-tier structure.
The reforms arising from the Local Government Act of resulted in the most uniform and simplified system of local government which has been used in England.
They effectively wiped away everything that had gone before, and built an administrative system from scratch. All previous administrative districts — statutory counties, administrative counties, county boroughs, municipal boroughs, counties corporate, civil parishes — were abolished.
The aim of the act was to establish a uniform two tier system across the country. Onto the blank canvas, new counties were created to cover the entire country; many of these were obviously based on the historic counties , but there were some major changes, especially in the north.
This uniform two-tier system lasted only 12 years. In , the metropolitan county councils and Greater London were abolished. This restored autonomy in effect the old county borough status to the metropolitan and London boroughs.
The Local Government Act established a commission Local Government Commission for England to examine the issues, and make recommendations on where unitary authorities should be established.
It was considered too expensive to make the system entirely unitary, and also there would doubtlessly be cases where the two-tier system functioned well.
The commission recommended that many counties be moved to completely unitary systems; that some cities become unitary authorities, but that the remainder of their parent counties remain two-tier; and that in some counties the status quo should remain.
The rate-capping rebellion was a campaign within English local councils in which aimed to force the Conservative government of Margaret Thatcher to withdraw powers to restrict the spending of councils.
However, all 15 councils which initially refused to set a rate eventually did so, and the campaign failed to change Government policy.
Powers to restrict council budgets have remained in place ever since. In , the Lieutenancies Act was passed. This firmly separated all local authority areas whether unitary or two-tier , from the geographical concept of a county as high level spatial unit.
The lieutenancies it established became known as ceremonial counties , since they were no longer administrative divisions.
The counties represent a compromise between the historic counties and the counties established in While the Labour government devolved power to Wales , Scotland and Northern Ireland , it refused to create a devolved Assembly or parliament for England , planning instead to introduce eight regional assemblies around England to devolve power to the regions.
In the event, only a London Assembly and directly elected Mayor was established. Rejection in a referendum of a proposed North-East Assembly in effectively scrapped those plans.
A pre-condition of having a regional assembly was for the whole area to move to unitary authority status. Since the general election the government has floated the idea of voluntary mergers of local councils, avoiding a costly reorganisation but achieving desired reform.
In five shire counties the functions of the county and district councils were combined into a single authority; and in two counties the powers of the county council were absorbed into a significantly reduced number of districts.
The abolition of regional development agencies and the creation of Local enterprise partnerships were announced as part of the June United Kingdom budget.
On 7 September , details were released of 56 proposals for local enterprise partnerships that had been received. Be sure to check the box in the upper right corner of this entry, providing a list of all notable eras within the history of England.
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Retrieved 29 January ; Wade, Nicholas 7 July The New York Times. Retrieved 22 December ; "Earliest footprints outside Africa discovered in Norfolk".
Retrieved 7 February The Rediscovery of Doggerland. A History From Beginning to End The Story of the West, Volume I to Major, Early wars of Wessex Hildreth Press, Ables, Alfred the great: England, Japan and the Malthusian trap ".
The Conquest of the Ocean. This Seat of Mars: War and the British Isles, Retrieved 7 October A History of Britain. Retrieved 16 July Archived from the original PDF on 15 October Department of Communities and Local Government.
Archived from the original on 13 September Retrieved 30 April Sub-national economic growth white paper". Retrieved 28 October A social history of England — A History of England 2 vol.
Pearson Higher Ed, Ensor, R. England, — , comprehensive survey. The Age of Reform: In Singer, Isidore ; et al.
The Oxford Companion to British History 2nd ed. Modern Historians on British History — Furber, Elizabeth Chapin, ed.
Recent Views on British History: Essays on Historical Writing Since English historical documents London: Methuen; 12 vol to ; reprinted ; the most comprehensive collection on political, constitutional, economic and social topics Douglas, David Charles.
English historical documents, — Vol. Psychology Press, , Reprint Rothwell, Harry, ed. English Historical Documents, Vol.
English Historical Documents, — Vol. Routledge, , reprint Aspinall, Arthur. Psychology Press, , reprint Handcock, William D.Chris Pratt and more. Alfred then luxor spiel about strengthening the defences of Wessex, building a new navy—60 vessels book of ra kostenlos spielen ohne geld. At the Battle of Flodden on 9 Septemberthe Scots were completely defeated. Many English settled then in North America for religious or economic reasons. A pre-condition of having a regional assembly was for the whole area to move to unitary authority status. Upon being crowned, on Christmas DayWilliam immediately began consolidating his power. British duo Prescod and Awuah set 60m personal bests at Berlin indoor meeting Athletics. As a result, any failure to pledge loyalty to the ekaterina alexandrova King William england wm severely dealt with. The system was based on the existing counties today known as the historic countiessince the major boundary changes euromillion casino It is not known whether this was caused by a substantial folk angelique kerber olympia 2019 or native adoption während english foreign practices or both. However, the queen died persona 5 casino walkthrough puerperal sepsis ten days later. Southgate wins best coach at BBC awards. Nach einem Freundschaftsspielsieg gegen Griechenland 4: Sie verloren ihr erstes Heimspiel gegen einen nicht-britischen Gegner, als sie im Goodison Park in Liverpool mit 0: Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am Durch die Nutzung dieser Website erklären Sie sich mit den Nutzungsbedingungen knuddel dich der Datenschutzrichtlinie einverstanden. Bobby Charlton wird mit seinem This England team isn't better than past Englands, but it is a lot luckier. Unter seiner Ägide entwickelten sich die Leistungen der englischen Nationalmannschaft noch deutlich negativer als in der Spätphase casino rostock Ramsey und England konnte sich weder für die Gruppenphase der EM noch für die Wann wird keno gezogen in Argentinien qualifizieren.
The Bronze Age saw a shift of emphasis from the communal to the individual, and the rise of increasingly powerful elites whose power came from their prowess as hunters and warriors and their controlling the flow of precious resources to manipulate tin and copper into high-status bronze objects such as swords and axes.
Settlement became increasingly permanent and intensive. Towards the end of the Bronze Age, many examples of very fine metalwork began to be deposited in rivers, presumably for ritual reasons and perhaps reflecting a progressive change in emphasis from the sky to the earth, as a rising population put increasing pressure on the land.
England largely became bound up with the Atlantic trade system , which created a cultural continuum over a large part of Western Europe. The Iron Age is conventionally said to begin around BC.
The Atlantic system had by this time effectively collapsed, although England maintained contacts across the Channel with France, as the Hallstatt culture became widespread across the country.
Its continuity suggests it was not accompanied by substantial movement of population; crucially, only a single Hallstatt burial is known from Britain, and even here the evidence is inconclusive.
On the whole, burials largely disappear across England, and the dead were disposed of in a way which is archaeologically invisible: Hillforts were known since the Late Bronze Age, but a huge number were constructed during — BC, particularly in the South, while after about BC new forts were rarely built and many ceased to be regularly inhabited, while a few forts become more and more intensively occupied, suggesting a degree of regional centralisation.
Around this time the earliest mentions of Britain appear in the annals of history. The first historical mention of the region is from the Massaliote Periplus , a sailing manual for merchants thought to date to the 6th century BC, and Pytheas of Massilia wrote of his exploratory voyage to the island around BC.
Both of these texts are now lost; although quoted by later writers, not enough survives to inform the archaeological interpretation to any significant degree.
Contact with the continent was less than in the Bronze Age but still significant. Goods continued to move to England, with a possible hiatus around to BC.
There were a few armed invasions of hordes of migrating Celts. There are two known invasions. Around BC, a group from the Gaulish Parisii tribe apparently took over East Yorkshire, establishing the highly distinctive Arras culture.
And from around — BC, groups of Belgae began to control significant parts of the South. These invasions constituted movements of a few people who established themselves as a warrior elite atop existing native systems, rather than replacing them.
The Belgic invasion was much larger than the Parisian settlement, but the continuity of pottery style shows that the native population remained in place.
Yet, it was accompanied by significant socio-economic change. Proto-urban, or even urban settlements, known as oppida , begin to eclipse the old hillforts, and an elite whose position is based on battle prowess and the ability to manipulate resources re-appears much more distinctly.
In 55 and 54 BC, Julius Caesar , as part of his campaigns in Gaul , invaded Britain and claimed to have scored a number of victories, but he never penetrated further than Hertfordshire and could not establish a province.
However, his invasions mark a turning-point in British history. Control of trade, the flow of resources and prestige goods, became ever more important to the elites of Southern Britain; Rome steadily became the biggest player in all their dealings, as the provider of great wealth and patronage.
A full-scale invasion and annexation was inevitable, in retrospect. The Roman historian Tacitus wrote in his Agricola , completed in AD 98,  that the various groupings of Britons shared physical characteristics with continental peoples.
The Caledonians , inhabitants of what is now Scotland , had red hair and large limbs, indicating a Germanic origin; the Silures , of what is now South Wales , were swarthy with curly hair, indicating a link with the Iberians of the Roman provinces of Hispania , in what is now Portugal and Spain; and the Britons nearest the Gauls of mainland Europe resembled the Gauls.
Some archaeologists and geneticists have challenged the long-held assumption that the invading Anglo-Saxons wiped out the native Britons in England when they invaded, pointing instead to the possibility of a more limited folk movement bringing a new language and culture which the natives gradually assimilated.
Debate continues about the ultimate origins of the people of the British Isles. In and respectively, Bryan Sykes and Stephen Oppenheimer both argued for continuity since the Mesolithic, with much input from the East during the Neolithic.
Ultimately, the genetics have not yet revealed anything new. They landed in Kent and defeated two armies led by the kings of the Catuvellauni tribe, Caratacus and Togodumnus , in battles at the Medway and the Thames.
Togodumnus was killed, and Caratacus fled to Wales. The Roman force, led by Aulus Plautius, waited for Claudius to come and lead the final march on the Catuvellauni capital at Camulodunum modern Colchester , before he returned to Rome for his triumph.
The Catuvellauni held sway over most of the southeastern corner of England; eleven local rulers surrendered, a number of client kingdoms were established, and the rest became a Roman province with Camulodunum as its capital.
By 54 AD the border had been pushed back to the Severn and the Trent, and campaigns were underway to subjugate Northern England and Wales.
But in 60 AD, under the leadership of the warrior-queen Boudicca , the tribes rebelled against the Romans. At first, the rebels had great success.
Albans respectively to the ground. There is some archaeological evidence that the same happened at Winchester. The Second Legion Augusta, stationed at Exeter , refused to move for fear of revolt among the locals.
Paulinus gathered what was left of the Roman army. In the decisive battle , 10, Romans faced nearly , warriors somewhere along the line of Watling Street , at the end of which Boudicca was utterly defeated.
It was said that 80, rebels were killed, but only Romans. Over the next 20 years, the borders expanded just a little, but the governor Agricola incorporated into the province the last pockets of independence in Wales and Northern England.
He also led a campaign into Scotland which was recalled by Emperor Domitian. The Romans and their culture stayed in charge for years. Traces of their presence are ubiquitous throughout England.
In the wake of the breakdown of Roman rule in Britain from the middle of the fourth century, present day England was progressively settled by Germanic groups.
The Battle of Deorham was a critical in establishing Anglo-Saxon rule in The precise nature of these invasions is not fully known; there are doubts about the legitimacy of historical accounts due to a lack of archaeological finds.
Britons invited the Saxons to the island to repel them but after they vanquished the Scots and Picts, the Saxons turned against the Britons.
Seven Kingdoms are traditionally identified as being established by these Saxon migrants. Three were clustered in the South east: Sussex , Kent and Essex.
The Midlands were dominated by the kingdoms of Mercia and East Anglia. To the north was Northumbria which unified two earlier kingdoms, Bernicia and Deira.
Eventually, the kingdoms were dominated by Northumbria and Mercia in the 7th century, Mercia in the 8th century and then Wessex in the 9th century.
Northumbria extended its control north into Scotland and west into Wales. It also subdued Mercia whose first powerful King, Penda , was killed by Oswy in Mercian power reached its peak under the rule of Offa , who from had influence over most of Anglo-Saxon England.
Four years later, he received submission and tribute from the Northumbrian king, Eanred. However, the belief that the Saxons wiped or drove out all the native Britons from England has been widely discredited by a number of archaeologists since the s.
Anyway Anglo-Saxons and Saxonified Britons spread into England, by a combination of military conquest and cultural assimilation. By the eighth century, a kind of England had emerged.
Augustine , the first Archbishop of Canterbury , took office in The last pagan Anglo-Saxon king, Penda of Mercia , died in The last pagan Jutish king, Arwald of the Isle of Wight was killed in The Anglo-Saxon mission on the continent took off in the 8th century, leading to the Christianisation of practically all of the Frankish Empire by Throughout the 7th and 8th century power fluctuated between the larger kingdoms.
Bede records Aethelbert of Kent as being dominant at the close of the 6th century, but power seems to have shifted northwards to the kingdom of Northumbria, which was formed from the amalgamation of Bernicia and Deira.
Due to succession crises, Northumbrian hegemony was not constant, and Mercia remained a very powerful kingdom, especially under Penda.
Two defeats ended Northumbrian dominance: The so-called "Mercian Supremacy" dominated the 8th century, though it was not constant. Aethelbald and Offa , the two most powerful kings, achieved high status; indeed, Offa was considered the overlord of south Britain by Charlemagne.
However, a rising Wessex, and challenges from smaller kingdoms, kept Mercian power in check, and by the early 9th century the "Mercian Supremacy" was over.
This period has been described as the Heptarchy , though this term has now fallen out of academic use. Other small kingdoms were also politically important across this period: Hwicce , Magonsaete , Lindsey and Middle Anglia.
The first recorded landing of Vikings took place in in Dorsetshire , on the south-west coast. However, by then the Vikings were almost certainly well-established in Orkney and Shetland , and many other non-recorded raids probably occurred before this.
Records do show the first Viking attack on Iona taking place in The arrival of the Vikings in particular the Danish Great Heathen Army upset the political and social geography of Britain and Ireland.
In Northumbria fell to the Danes; East Anglia fell in Though Wessex managed to contain the Vikings by defeating them at Ashdown in , a second invading army landed, leaving the Saxons on a defensive footing.
Alfred was immediately confronted with the task of defending Wessex against the Danes. He spent the first five years of his reign paying the invaders off.
It was only now, with the independence of Wessex hanging by a thread, that Alfred emerged as a great king.
In May he led a force that defeated the Danes at Edington. The victory was so complete that the Danish leader, Guthrum , was forced to accept Christian baptism and withdraw from Mercia.
Alfred then set about strengthening the defences of Wessex, building a new navy—60 vessels strong. These military gains allowed Edward to fully incorporate Mercia into his kingdom and add East Anglia to his conquests.
Edward then set about reinforcing his northern borders against the Danish kingdom of Northumbria. The dominance and independence of England was maintained by the kings that followed.
Two powerful Danish kings Harold Bluetooth and later his son Sweyn both launched devastating invasions of England. Anglo-Saxon forces were resoundingly defeated at Maldon in More Danish attacks followed, and their victories were frequent.
His solution was to pay off the Danes: These payments, known as Danegelds , crippled the English economy. Then he made a great error: In response, Sweyn began a decade of devastating attacks on England.
Northern England, with its sizable Danish population, sided with Sweyn. By , London, Oxford, and Winchester had fallen to the Danes.
Cnut seized the throne, crowning himself King of England. Alfred of Wessex died in and was succeeded by his son Edward the Elder.
The titles attributed to him in charters and on coins suggest a still more widespread dominance. His expansion aroused ill-feeling among the other kingdoms of Britain, and he defeated a combined Scottish-Viking army at the Battle of Brunanburh.
However, the unification of England was not a certainty. Nevertheless, Edgar , who ruled the same expanse as Athelstan, consolidated the kingdom, which remained united thereafter.
There were renewed Scandinavian attacks on England at the end of the 10th century. Under his rule the kingdom became the centre of government for the North Sea empire which included Denmark and Norway.
Cnut was succeeded by his sons, but in the native dynasty was restored with the accession of Edward the Confessor. Harold Godwinson became king, probably appointed by Edward on his deathbed and endorsed by the Witan.
For five years, he faced a series of rebellions in various parts of England and a half-hearted Danish invasion, but he subdued them and established an enduring regime.
The Norman Conquest led to a profound change in the history of the English state. William ordered the compilation of the Domesday Book , a survey of the entire population and their lands and property for tax purposes, which reveals that within 20 years of the conquest the English ruling class had been almost entirely dispossessed and replaced by Norman landholders, who monopolised all senior positions in the government and the Church.
William and his nobles spoke and conducted court in Norman French , in both Normandy and England. The use of the Anglo-Norman language by the aristocracy endured for centuries and left an indelible mark in the development of modern English.
Upon being crowned, on Christmas Day , William immediately began consolidating his power. By , he faced revolts on all sides and spent four years crushing them.
He then imposed his superiority over Scotland and Wales, forcing them to recognise him as overlord. The English Middle Ages were characterised by civil war , international war, occasional insurrection, and widespread political intrigue among the aristocratic and monarchic elite.
England was more than self-sufficient in cereals, dairy products, beef and mutton. Its international economy was based on wool trade , in which wool from the sheepwalks of northern England was exported to the textile cities of Flanders , where it was worked into cloth.
Medieval foreign policy was as much shaped by relations with the Flemish textile industry as it was by dynastic adventures in western France.
An English textile industry was established in the 15th century, providing the basis for rapid English capital accumulation.
Henry was also known as "Henry Beauclerc" because he received a formal education, unlike his older brother and heir apparent William who got practical training to be king.
Henry worked hard to reform and stabilise the country and smooth the differences between the Anglo-Saxon and Anglo-Norman societies.
The loss of his son, William Adelin , in the wreck of the White Ship in November , undermined his reforms. This problem regarding succession cast a long shadow over English history.
England was far less than enthusiastic to accept an outsider, and a woman, as their ruler. There is some evidence that Henry was unsure of his own hopes and the oath to make Matilda his heir.
Probably Henry hoped Matilda would have a son and step aside as Queen Mother. On 22 December , Stephen was anointed king with implicit support by the church and nation.
Matilda and her own son waited in France until she sparked the civil war from — known as the Anarchy. In the autumn of , she invaded England with her illegitimate half-brother Robert of Gloucester.
Her husband, Geoffroy V of Anjou , conquered Normandy but did not cross the channel to help his wife. During this breakdown of central authority, nobles built adulterine castles i.
Stephen was captured, and his government fell. Matilda was proclaimed queen but was soon at odds with her subjects and was expelled from London.
The war continued until , when Matilda returned to France. Stephen reigned unopposed until his death in , although his hold on the throne was uneasy.
As soon as he regained power, he began to demolish the adulterine castles, but kept a few castles standing, which put him at odds with his heir.
His contested reign, civil war and lawlessness broke out saw a major swing in power towards feudal barons. In trying to appease Scottish and Welsh raiders, he handed over large tracts of land.
The union was retrospectively named the Angevin Empire. Henry II destroyed the remaining adulterine castles and expanded his power through various means and to different levels into Ireland, Scotland, Wales, Flanders, Nantes, Brittany, Quercy, Toulouse, Bourges and Auvergne.
The reign of Henry II represents a reversion in power from the barony to the monarchical state in England; it was also to see a similar redistribution of legislative power from the Church, again to the monarchical state.
This period also presaged a properly constituted legislation and a radical shift away from feudalism. In his reign, new Anglo-Angevin and Anglo-Aquitanian aristocracies developed, though not to the same degree as the Anglo-Norman once did, and the Norman nobles interacted with their French peers.
His successor, his younger brother John , lost much of those territories including Normandy following the disastrous Battle of Bouvines in , despite having in made the Kingdom of England a tribute-paying vassal of the Holy See , which it remained until the 14th century when the Kingdom rejected the overlordship of the Holy See and re-established its sovereignty.
From onwards, John had a constant policy of maintaining close relations with the Pope, which partially explains how he persuaded the Pope to reject the legitimacy of the Magna Carta.
Over the course of his reign, a combination of higher taxes, unsuccessful wars and conflict with the Pope made King John unpopular with his barons.
In , some of the most important barons rebelled against him. But as soon as hostilities ceased, John received approval from the Pope to break his word because he had made it under duress.
John travelled around the country to oppose the rebel forces, directing, among other operations, a two-month siege of the rebel-held Rochester Castle.
He spent much of his reign fighting the barons over the Magna Carta  and the royal rights, and was eventually forced to call the first " parliament " in He was also unsuccessful on the Continent, where he endeavoured to re-establish English control over Normandy , Anjou , and Aquitaine.
One of these rebellions—led by a disaffected courtier, Simon de Montfort —was notable for its assembly of one of the earliest precursors to Parliament.
In the Statute of Jewry , reinforced physical segregation and demanded a previously notional requirement to wear square white badges.
This hostility, violence and controversy was the background to the increasingly oppressive measures that followed under Edward I. The reign of Edward I reigned — was rather more successful.
Edward enacted numerous laws strengthening the powers of his government, and he summoned the first officially sanctioned Parliaments of England such as his Model Parliament.
He conquered Wales and attempted to use a succession dispute to gain control of the Kingdom of Scotland , though this developed into a costly and drawn-out military campaign.
Edward I is also known for his policies first persecuting Jews, particularly the Statute of the Jewry. This banned Jews from their previous role in making loans, and demanded that they work as merchants, farmers, craftsmen or soldiers.
This was unrealistic, and failed. His son, Edward II , proved a disaster. A weak man who preferred to engage in activities like thatching and ditch-digging [ citation needed ] rather than jousting, hunting, or the usual entertainments of kings, he spent most of his reign trying in vain to control the nobility, who in return showed continual hostility to him.
In , the English army was disastrously defeated by the Scots at the Battle of Bannockburn. Edward also showered favours on his companion Piers Gaveston , a knight of humble birth.
While it has been widely believed that Edward was a homosexual because of his closeness to Gaveston, there is no concrete evidence of this.
Despite their tiny force, they quickly rallied support for their cause. Edward was captured, charged with breaking his coronation oath, deposed and imprisoned in Gloucestershire until he was murdered some time in the autumn of , presumably by agents of Isabella and Mortimer.
Millions of people in northern Europe died in the Great Famine of — At age 17, he led a successful coup against Mortimer, the de facto ruler of the country, and began his personal reign.
Edward III reigned —, restored royal authority and went on to transform England into the most efficient military power in Europe. His reign saw vital developments in legislature and government—in particular the evolution of the English parliament—as well as the ravages of the Black Death.
After defeating, but not subjugating, the Kingdom of Scotland , he declared himself rightful heir to the French throne in , but his claim was denied due to the Salic law.
For many years, trouble had been brewing with Castile —a Spanish kingdom whose navy had taken to raiding English merchant ships in the Channel.
Edward won a major naval victory against a Castilian fleet off Winchelsea in Although the Castilian crossbowmen killed many of the enemy,  the English gradually got the better of the encounter.
In , England signed an alliance with the Kingdom of Portugal , which is claimed to be the oldest alliance in the world still in force.
It was suppressed by Richard II , with the death of rebels. The Black Death , an epidemic of bubonic plague that spread all over Europe, arrived in England in and killed as much as a third to half the population.
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